1. Development and Cooperation Objectives
The development and cooperation objectives for the Development Triangle in the border area ofCambodia,LaosandVietnaminclude:
i.To coordinate the infrastructure development plans of the three countries with an aim to supporting the requirements of key economic activities in the Development Triangle, such as development of agriculture and processing industries, power industry, tourism and trade;
ii.To exploit the agricultural, forestry and tourism potentials in service of the growth of the entire Development Triangle right from the beginning;
iii.To build human resources for the most potential economic sectors in the Development Triangle like agriculture, tourism service and the related supporting industries and small and handicraft industries;
iv.Facilitate cross-border flows of goods, people and investment capital within the territory of the Development Triangle through a close coordination and combination of customs and entry procedures, removal of obstacles to the movement of the people, such as visa requirement, and ensure a consistent application of legal documents and trade regulations.
Immediate objectives:Cooperate in developing a number of important transport axes connecting provinces in the Development Triangle so as to stimulate and enable the development cooperation in other sectors and industries; efficiently implement a number of bilateral cooperative projects on a small scale in the fields of tourism, trade, investment, agriculture, education - training, healthcare, etc. to create prerequisites and draw experience for subsequent cooperative projects.
Major types of activities to be carried out in the Development Triangle include:
Investment promotion:Make efforts to attract domestic and foreign investment to the Development Triangle through marketing complementary natural resources in the area, the flows of production factors across the border and the possibility to establish special economic zones eligible for many preferential and incentive polices. Possible activities to be carried out for a development triangle include: establishment of border markets, coordinating marketing strategies; raising the institutional capacity for local investment organisations; and inter-agency cooperative measures at the central and local levels.
Trade facilitation: Approaches should be considered so as to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of trading procedures, documents and data exchange within the Development Triangle. Possible activities to be carried out include: Harmonise the customs procedures – inspection and document requirements, develop a consistent products classification; trade-related information systems; joint efforts in trade promotion activities; acceleration of the realisation of AFTA commitments; establishment of export quality standards for agricultural products.
Cooperation with enterprises: Introduce the cooperation mechanism into business industries in the Development Triangle to support other activities and create a sustainable momentum for economic activities. Possible activities to be carried out include: establishment of a business forum in the Development Triangle, organisation of interlinked meetings, particularly in tourism and agriculture sectors, and exchange of information on local business.
Industrial master plan: Coordinate industrial master plans among the members based on the complements to the potential resources. Promote the ASEAN Industrial Cooperation Plan (AICO) among the companies in the Development Triangle to take advantage of tariff and non-tariff preferential treatments which would encourage trans-national production.
Small and Medium Enterprises Development: Contribute resources and experience to special SME programmes in the Development Triangle. These may include special package aids to the SMEs in the area, joint training and marketing efforts, connection to selected export locations and foreign firms that need suppliers (i.e. intermediation).
Human resources development: Participate in cross-border human resource development programmes targeting farmers, workers and business people.
Rural Development:Study modes of rural developments along the line of integration. Since most areas in the Development Triangle are rural areas that are in shortage of basic infrastructures like power, water, transport network, sanitary, education and healthcare systems, applying the lessons drawn from the ADB-funded Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) cooperation programme, implementing multilateral coordination and assistance strategies in rural development, and facilitating economic activities.
2.Development and Cooperation Approaches
(a) To take full advantage of the positive aspects of the external economic policies, and the atmosphere of peace, friendship, equality, mutual respect and mutual benefit to the three countries; to unleash and bring into full play the potentialities and strengths of the Development Triangle; to actively push up economic cooperation and exchange; and to develop a long-term and stable cooperation strategy. A match between individual plans of three countries and development plans for the entire Development Triangle and the development of the related regions should be ensured.
(b) To bring into play the advantage of Vietnam as a gateway to the sea in order to create its attractiveness conducive to economic exchanges; to actively push up economic cooperation and alignment and development cooperation among the provinces in the Triangle with an aim to enabling them to mutually assist, complement and coordinate with one another for a better development of and a guarantee of security and development for the entire area; actively promote economic cooperation and alignment between the Vietnamese provinces and those of Cambodia and Laos within the framework of cash crop development programme, forestry exploitation and processing, tourism, social development and some other programmes. Adopt policies that are suitable to the particular conditions of each of the three countries.
(c) To dig and bring into full play the potentialities, strengths and internal resources of each province in the Triangle for the development of the market-oriented commodity producing economy; to bring into play and efficiently use (in the immediate and long-term future) all potentials and human resources available for the sake of rapid and sustainable growth of the Development Triangle. Investment interests within the Triangle should be ensured.
(d) To strengthen economic linkages within the Development Triangle through development cooperation programmes of the provinces in the area, jointly cooperate to expand and improve the efficiency of external economic relations, and implement the policy on attraction of external resources on a consistent and permanent basis. At the same time, to make the Development Triangle closely linked to the surrounding areas in the process of development of each country with a view to transforming its economic structure along the line of raising the efficiency of each industry/sector and each province in the area. Environmental protection and living conditions of the people in the Triangle in the future should be guaranteed.
(e) To transform the economic composition along the line of improving efficiency of each sector/industry and each province of the Development Triangle; to develop in a selective and synchronous manner the area’s infrastructure; to attach importance to steady development of agriculture, forestry and fisheries and rural areas; basically establish a “socio-economic belt” along the border area; and form “border checkpoint economic areas”.
(f) Development cooperation among different localities in the Triangle is regarded as a measure of primary importance for the efficient development of the Triangle, taking into consideration the attraction of the participation of a third country in the development process of the Triangle.
(g) Socio-economic development should take into consideration ecological environment protection, especially the watershed ecological area.
(h) Strengthen the implementation of the existing economic cooperation agreements.
(i) Create an appropriate legal framework and policies, including the agreement on goods in transit for Development Triangle, simplification, streamlining and harmonisation of customs-trade and investment documentations and procedures for the Development Triangle.
(j) Set up an operational and management mechanism for facilitating implementation of the Master Plan.