1. Programmes to develop and link different infrastructure projects
1.1 Transport Network Development
(a)- Programme to develop the axis lines connecting three countries together and connect the Development Triangle to the capital and major economic centres of each country
·National Road No. 13 linking the Development Triangle and Vientiane, the capital of Laos
·National Road No. 7 linking the Development Triangle and Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia
·Ho Chi Minh route and National Road No. 1A linking the Development Triangle and Hanoi capital and Ho Chi Minh City of Vietnam.
·Attapeu - Laos - Vietnam border - Dung Quat port line:
Road No. 18B (of Laos) is now under construction and planned to be cleared for transport in 2005, the section from km 37thto the border with Vietnam is 76 km long will be built based on low standards, i.e. the width of the road base is 7m and that of the road surface is 6m; this section will be renovated and upgraded in 2020 to meet the actual requirements for transport on this road.
NR No. 40 (Vietnam) is 20 km long, presently built on the BOT basis in Kon Tum province, and will be renovated and upgraded in 2015.
NR No. 24, which is presently a single-lane road, will be expanded to a double-lane road in 2005.
NR No. 40A (the new road): If it is soon built, the length of transport will be shortened by 103 km, civil works are expected to be done during the 2006 – 2010 period.
·The O Pong Maon (in Stung Treng province) – Cambodia – Vietnam line border leading to Quy Nhon port.
The O Pong Maon – Ban Lung section of the road No. 78 which is presently a gravelled road is planned for construction in the 2005 – 2010 period.
The section of the road No. 78 from Ban Lung to Cambodia – Vietnam border is planned for construction in the 2004 – 2006 period. Credit will be provided to Cambodia by Vietnam, using the same mechanism as applied to the construction of Road No. 18B of Laos.
The Vietnam - Cambodia border – Quy Nhon section of the NR No. 19 that has been invested is the best line linking the Central highlands and the National Road No. 1. Many parts of this section are already two-lane. The whole line is planned for upgradation during the 2011 – 2015 period.
·Se Kong – Laos – Vietnam border line leading to Da Nang:
The Road No. 16B from Se Kong to the Laos – Vietnam border (on the territory of Quang Nam province) which is 119 km long is planned to be upgraded to a proper standard in the near future.
The NR No. 14B from Vietnam – Laos border to Thanh My of Quang Nam province which is 75 km long and presently a gravelled road will be renovated and upgraded to a double-lane road during the 2003 – 2005 period.
·Se Kong – Laos – Vietnam border line leading to Chan May port
The Road No. 49A (Laos) from Se Kong to Laos – Vietnam border (on the territory of A Luoi district of Thua Thien Hue province (Vietnam) is 187 km and presently composed of 50 km of earth road. It is expected that the construction of some 87 km of the road will be complete by 2005 and the remaining 100 km will be built during the 2006 – 2010 period.
The NR No. 49 from Vietnam – Laos border to Hue which is 82 km long and presently mainly one-lane will be renovated and expanded to a fully double-lane road during 2003 – 2005.
(b)-Axis lines connecting to major transport network of the Development Triangle:
·Road No. 16 (Laos):This road which links the two provincial towns of Attapeu and Se Kong and is 76 km long is being built with ADB funds and expected to be fully cleared for transport in 2005. It is planned for expansion during the 2016 – 2020 period.
·Road No. 16A (Laos):This road links Se Kong and Pakse, is 139 km long, and will lead to Vientiane capital and U Bon (Thailand). This line will be divided into two sections:
- The 56 km-long section which is now a gravelled road will be renovated and upgraded during the 2006 – 2010 period.
- The 83 km-long section which is presently bituminous will be upgraded during 2011 – 2015 period.
·Road No. 18A (Laos):This road links Attapeu province and Phia Phay (Cham Pa Sak province) and connects to the NR No. 13 (Laos). It is presently a gravelled road and will be built in the near future.
- The National Road No. 13S (Laos):This road links Pakse and the Laos – Cambodia border, is 160 km long and presently in good condition. The road was upgraded with ADB loan. This road has been opened for traffic since 1999.
·Road 1J (Laos):This road which links the road No. 18B in Muong May and the Laos – Cambodia border (on the territory of Ratanakiri province) and is presently composed of 20 km of earthen road will be built during the 2006 – 2010 period.
·Road No. 7 (Cambodia):This road goes from the border with Laos via Stung Treng provincial town to Kratie provincial town, is 198 km long and presently remains an earthen and gravel road. The improvement of this road section has started in May 2004 with financial support from P.R. China. It is expected to complete in 2006.
·Roads No. 78a and 78e (Cambodia):The construction of these roads which go from Ban Lung to the Cambodia – Laos border and connect to the road No. 1J of Laos and are presently composed of 40 km of earthen road will be implemented during the 2006 – 2010 period.
·Road No. 76 (Cambodia):This road which goes from Ban Lung to Keng San and is 75 km long will lead to Mondulkiri provincial town. It is presently an earthen and gravel road. Its construction is expected to be made during the 2006 – 2010 period.
·National Road No. 14 (Vietnam):This road starts from Thanh My, connects to the NR No. 14D and NR. No. 14B, goes through the provinces of Quang Ngai, Kon Tum and Gia Lai to reach Buon Me Thuot of Dak Lak province. It is part of the Ho Chi Minh road for which a master plan for road construction has been made. The road is divided into two sections as follows:
- The section from Thanh My to Ngoc Hoi which is 164 km long will be built in 2003 – 2005.
- The Ngoc Hoi – Buon Me Thuot section which is 280 km long will be built in 2006 – 2010.
1.2 Programmes on Post and Telecommunications Development
- A post and telecommunication network is to be established at the three border checkpoints of the three countries to allow post exchange among the post offices of the provinces in the Triangle and direct television and telephone communication among the border checkpoints and between the border checkpoints and the central post offices of each country.
-Programme on desk phone network development
-Programme on mobile phone network development
-Programme on post department network development
2. Power and power network development programme
-Programme on development of large-scale hydropower projects over the major river basins of the Triangle to link the power supply grids of the three countries. Conduct a feasibility study on an energy, power and hydropower cooperation programme in the Se San River basin; construct Nam Kong hydropower dam; Sekhaman 3 hydropower plant; Sekong 5 hydropower plant; Sekong 4 hydropower plant; Houay Lam Phan Nhay hydropower plant; and other hydropower projects: XD’ray H’ling II, Dak R’Tih, Ea Sup, Buon Kop Chu Pong Krong, Sre Pork III...(Dak Lak); Plei Krong, Kon Tum upper stream; Ry Ninh II; Se San 3; Se San 3A; Se San 4; Iadrang I; H'chan...
- Programme on construction of small- and medium-sized hydropower plants in the provinces of the Triangle(namely Attapeu, Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Ratanakiri, Se Kong, Stung Treng, etc.).For the Cambodian and Laotian provinces, in the immediate future, the demand for power supply to meet production and livelihood requirements is expected to be huge while the existing supply capacity is very limited. Therefore, new power plants should be developed (possibly in the form of BOT) or power should be purchased from neighbouring countries.
- Programme on establishment of a common power network for the entire Development Triangle:establish a power transmission grid that connects the three countries along the national roads linking the border provinces, namely the axis of the road No. 78 of Cambodia, the road No. 18 of Laos and the road No. 40 of Vietnam.
3. Industrial Development Programme
·Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng provinces of Cambodia
Cashew nut, rubber processing industries, etc.
Mechanical engineering industry
Building material industry
·Attapeu, Saravan andSe Kong provinces of Laos
Agro-forestry processing industry: coffee processing in Se Kong, wood and cashew nut processing in both provinces, and animal feed and wheat flour processing industry.
Paper pulp, paper and packing paper industry
Mechanical engineering industry.
Building materials industry
·The Central Highlands provinces of Vietnam:
Bauxite exploitation industry in Dak Nong and gold mining in Kon Tum.
Wood processing industry: The development cooperation projects include: MDF plywood plant with a capacity of 54 thousand m3per annum; shavings plywood plants with a capacity of 3,000 m3per annum in Dak Lak, Dal Nong and Kon Tum; sugar-cane bagasse and shaving plywood plants in Gia Lai and Kon Tum with a capacity of 2,000 m3per annum per plant; Kon Tum Paper Pulp Mill with a capacity of 130 thousand tons per annum and some other paper packing paper mills, etc.
Programme on coffee bean and packed coffee processing industry development in all the three provinces in the Central Highlands to enable them to be capable of processing all coffee produced within the Development Triangle
Programme on rubber latex processing industry development in the three Central Highlands provinces with a combined capacity of about 120 thousand tons per annum
Tapioca starch and animal feed processing industry will be strongly developed in Dak Lak and Dak Nong.
Beverages and foodstuff industry: mineral water (Gia Lai and Kon Tum), pineapple juice (Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Gia Lai and Kon Tum), cocoa powder processing (Dak Lak), cashew nut processing (Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Gia Lai).
Cotton and yarn processing (Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Gia Lai), leather and clothing industries will be developed in all the three countries.
Mechanical engineering industry in service of ago-forestry production and transport mechanical engineering
Plastic and chemicals industry.
4. Programmes on agricultural - forestry - fishery development in combination with processing industry for the localities in the Development Triangle
- Programme on the investigation of the ability to expand the area of agricultural land and the directions of its exploitation and use by the Cambodian and Laotian provinces: The objective of the programme isto define the land fund for each area and the directions for its exploitation and use in order to plan for people’s permanent settlement to ensure that they can have access to land for production and stable settlement.
- Irrigation Development Programme for Cambodian and Laotian Provinces:The objective of the programme is to formulate a master plan and an development investment plan for irrigation works for the period up to 2010 to serve agricultural production and socio-economic development of the provinces of Cambodia and Laos in the Triangle.
- Cattle Raising Development Programme:The objective of the programme is to import parents cows and buffaloes, reform the local cow and buffalo herd and establish some effective cattle raising models to serve as the basis for pushing up livestock development with an aim to meeting the market demand and protecting the ecological environment.
- Programme on development of the set of crop and animal varieties with an aim to transforming crop composition of the Development Triangle:The objective of the programme is to identify the set of appropriate market-oriented crops that can be developed in the provinces of the Triangle, and to transfer production technology in order to push up the expansion of the promising market-oriented crops which in turn improve the producers’ income and protect the ecological environment.
- Short-term Training Programme for Agricultural and Forestry Technical Workers:The objective of the programme is to provide short-term agricultural and forestry training to about 10 - 20 people per province per annum (with priority given to the people from mountainous districts).
- Forestation and Forest Protection Programme:The objective of the programme is to increase the forest coverage in the provinces in the Triangle and strengthen the capacity of the management apparatus responsible for the protection of natural preserved areas and forests.
- Combined programme on population stabilisation and development of agricultural and forest production for ethnic minority areas:The objective of the programme is to identify the land reserve that can be potentially exploited for agricultural and forestry development and the directions for its use in order to plan for population distribution along the line of permanent cultivation and fixed settlement to serve as the foundation for guiding the production development and expansion with an aim to stabilising the lives of the ethnic minority people.
- Programme on Development of Some Mainstay Cash Crops in the Development Triangle (coffee, rubber, cocoa, cashew, etc.) in Service of Crop Composition Transformation:The objective of the programme is to survey and review the planting of coffee, rubber, cocoa, cashew and pepper in the seven provinces to serve as the foundation for the formulation of an overall programme and policy mechanism for the development and expansion of these crops in all the seven provinces of the Development Triangle.
5. Development Programmes and Projects for Trade and Services Sectors
Formulate a project on development of trading relations between Laos and Vietnam across the Bo Y border checkpoint: establishment of border checkpoint economic zones, and Laos - Vietnam border markets.
Formulate a project on development of trading relations between Cambodia and Vietnam across the Duc Co and Bu Prang border checkpoints (Vietnam): establish border checkpoint economic zones, and Cambodia - Vietnam border markets.
The possibility of establishing warehouses, export processing units, border markets… for which liberal customs procedures are applied at the area of border checkpoints will be studied.
The provinces of Cambodia: Export items will include: bottled mineral water and coffee produced in Stung Treng; coffee which will be exported to other countries via Laos; rubber and pepper; agricultural products via Vietnamese sea ports. Import items will include: building materials, gasoline, food items from Vietnam.
The provinces of Laos: Export of forestry products (wood, bastard cardamom, lotus seed) and coffee produced in Sekong; establishment of border markets in two border districts having common boundaries with Vietnam; cooperation with the third country in merchandise transport; training of trade staff; expansion of the trading network (with a focus on wooden products and food items) in Attapeu; and holding of a conference to reach an agreement on the regulation on trading activities at borderline areas.
The Central Highlands of Vietnam: Establishment of concentrated trading centres in cities, provincial towns and district towns; development of the market network (particularly that of rural and border markets); development of the trading system in service of people in remote, isolated and ethnic minority areas; and development of border checkpoint economy and border checkpoint trading areas.
6. Tourism Development Programme
- Development of a master plan for the Development Triangle’s tourism development
- Programme on tourism development towards the goal of“three nations, one destination”. Development of tours for eco-tourism, cultural and festival tourism, and other types like "“legendary road”, “heritage road”, etc. to connect with available tours in each country; and exchange of tourism information.
- Projects to exploit tourist locations of each country:
The provinces of Cambodia:Projects to exploit natural tourism locations like the O Pong Moan tourism area development, tourism area development in Thalapri Voat district, tourism area development in “Cow’s Tail Island ” in Stung Treng; projects to exploit tourism locations along the roads No. 303A and 303B in Rattanakiri; projects to exploit natural forest ecological tourism locations in Rattanakiri; projects on restoration and development of traditional culture of Cambodian ethnic groups in service of tourism development; projects to make investment in technical and physical foundations like restaurants, hotels, recreational locations; projects on organisation and management of tourism development.
The Provinces of Laos:Projects to exploit natural tourism locations like Houa Khone waterfall, Nong Fa Lake; project on restoration and organisation of tourism for the purpose of learning about the history of Ho Chi Minh trail; projects to exploit eco-tourism locations in Attapeu like Pha Phong waterfall, etc.; projects on restoration and development of traditional culture of Laotian ethnic groups in service of tourism development; projects to make investment in technical and physical foundations like restaurants, hotels, recreational locations; projects on organisation and management of tourism development.
The Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam: Lak lake project in Dak Lak province; Plei Ku Reservoir project in Gia Lai province; tourism project in the areas of Yaly hydropower plant’s reservoir; eco-tourism projects in the three provinces; projects on restoration and development of cultural tourism in these provinces; projects to make investment in physical facilities such as restaurants, hotels, recreational establishments in the provinces; projects on organisation of tourism activities in the provinces, etc.
7. Programme on Human Resource Development and Training and Social and Cultural Affairs
- Programme on training of technical workers in service of agro-forestry and agro-forestry processing industry development
The objective of the training is to equip the trainees with the knowledge of intensive farming and to transfer to them intensive farming technology, thereby enabling them to combine agricultural and forestry activities together by using their obtained knowledge and skills with regard to the processing of products of perennial cash crops like coffee, rubber, cashew, and pharmaceutical trees (e.g. bastard cardamom), as well as short-term cash crops such as cotton, sugar cane, etc. and processing forestry products (household furniture processing, planting of material trees for and production of paper pulp, etc). Trainees will be trained, coached and transferred with technology and skills in how to develop and expand poultry and cattle raising, etc. mainly on a household scale with an aim to producing the materials like meat and leather for the processing industry. In the industry, construction and services sectors, the objective of training is primarily to enable the Cambodian and Laotian people and the Vietnamese ethnic minority people to familiarise with and adapt to the market economy and market-oriented commodity production. At the same time, the establishments for training technical workers and technicians in building materials industry, mechanical repair of agricultural and forestry capital goods, transport and civil electric industry will be gradually set up and this type of training will be step by step expanded. Small industries and handicraft trades (like brocade weaving) in both urban and rural areas will be expanded. Importance will be attached to expanding the training in construction, transport, irrigation, hydropower, civil industries, etc. Labour for trade, tourism and private and community services sectors will be rapidly increased and their training will be swiftly expanded.
The scale of teacher’s training, first of all primary school teachers, will be expanded and preparations will be made for the necessary number of junior secondary school teachers. Preferential policies should be applied to the staff and teachers who accept to work in remote, isolated and ethnic minority areas. The directions to be followed include: bring into play the education tradition, efficiently use the available physical foundations and the contingent of teachers and to facilitate and provide more opportunities for the people to go to school, and support and encourage pagodas in Cambodia and Laos to open schools/classes to teach students scripts and ethics.Importance will be attached to education for ethnic groups; the system of provincial/district ethnic boarding schools and various types of semi-boarding schools in which the people are responsible for feeding the pupils at the village and hamlet level will be expanded and their quality be improved with a view to maintaining the existing pupils from poor families and ethnic groups in school and attracting new ones in order to create resources for cadre training at higher levels. Proper preferential policies (in terms of scholarship) should be adopted to attract pupils from ethnic groups to go to vocational training schools, secondary professional schools, colleges and universities.
-Programme on development of physical and technical foundations in service of education and training
The building of schools/classes will be combined with the implementation of infrastructure development projects at the commune level (for Vietnamese provinces) and at the village and hamlet levels (or at the village/hamlet cluster level) (for Cambodian and Laotian provinces).
8. Ecological Environment Protection Programme
The objective of the programme isto ensure the sustainable development of the Development Triangle.
The ten provinces in the Vietnam – Laos – Cambodia Development Triangle constitute an area with high forest coverage and serve as the climate lung for the three countries. This area is also the upstream of many rivers. Therefore, permanent attention should be paid to the environmental aspects of socio-economic development programmes to ensure that those programmes will not damage the ecological environment, especially the watershed forest, natural preserved areas.
Proper management of common natural resources and joint actions to address trans-national environmental problems are needed steps to be taken to achieve the above-mentioned objective. Environmental impact assessment should be taken into first consideration in all decision making processes for development projects. While central an local governments assume main responsibilities for environmental protection, cooperation with neighbouring countries is extremely important for addressing externalities and ensuring sustainable utilisation of natural resources.