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Date 30/05/2016-10:22:00 AM
Development and cooperation orientations
1. General Directions for Development Cooperation in the Cambodia - Laos - Vietnam Development Triangle up to 2010
Equal cooperation, assistance and economic relations among the provinces in the Triangle can take place in the following fields:
- Conduct of basic research and survey and formulation of development master plans for the industries/sectors and provinces in the Triangle
- Cooperation in the development of the infrastructure system: linking transport networks of different provinces in the Triangle, creating connections between the Triangle and other areas/regions of each country; development of small- and medium-sized hydropower projects; construction of a uniform power supply system; efficient use of water resources; etc. Cooperation should also be conducted in the field of post and communications to ensure the availability of communication channels between the border communes and the centre of each province and among different provinces in the Triangle. In the immediate future, national public communication networks should be consolidated and developed to ensure through communication with each pair of border gates and with all border commune clusters. Newspapers, mails and postal parcels should be delivered on a timely basis to serve the socio-economic development of the Triangle.
- Cooperation in the development of general education and technical worker’s training: Apart from the development cooperation among the central ministries and line agencies in education and training, the Central Highlands provinces can assist other provinces in the Triangle within their own capacity to create human resources in service of the latter’s socio-economic development, primarily in service of socio-economic development projects. This assistance can be offered through such activities as technology transfer, training of managerial staff and skilled workers working in production and business establishments right in the locality.
- Given its experience in agricultural production, particularly in cultivation of perennial cash crops, the Vietnamese side has many advantages to take part in the cooperation with the Laotian and Cambodian provinces in the production, processing and export of agricultural products in many forms like joint venture, land rental for production purposes or technology transfer, etc. The crops that can be developed to a commercially suitable scale include rubber, coffee, sugar cane and some other short-term crops.
- Animal husbandry is also an economic sector that can be strongly developed. The local traditional experience and advanced technical methods should be combined to expand cattle farming and the raising of some special animals like python. The area of pasture available for livestock production remains very large, especially for raising cattle under forest foliage.
- Cooperation in mixed forestry business includes such activities as afforestation and processing which are the fields that the Vietnamese counterparts have accumulated much experience and are capable of expanding the scope of cooperation. The provinces in the Triangle should cooperate in environmental protection, for example protection of national forests and precious and rare animals.
Cooperation in trade development will be pushed up in both aspects of market on the one hand and production of consumer goods on the other.Given availability of agriculture and forestry potentials in the Triangle Area, the study on possibility of trade of complementary goods among the Triangle provinces should be conducted. Cooperation in tourism development of for the purpose of cultural exchange among the provinces in the Triangle will be encouraged. Tours for ecological tourism purposes and outings in various forms like sight-seeing in primitive forests characterised by diversified systems of plants and animals and many waterfalls, streams and lakes, etc. should be jointly organised by the three countries. In addition to the Development Triangle’s attraction created by its superb nature, it is also an attractive cultural and historical tourism destination given the age-old cultures of the ethnic minority people shown in the architecture of communal, stilted and charnel houses, traditional festivals, ethnic costumes and musical instruments, etc. However, before these directions can be realised, surveys and designs for tourism lines should be conducted. These lines should be combined with the existing lines in the Triangle with an aim to increasing the duration of tours through the attraction of completely new tours and guaranteed tourism services.
The above-mentioned proposed development cooperation activities will be conducted in the forms of joint venture and alignment. Investment will be made step by step with sectoral and territorial focus being identified in accordance with the overall master plan. At the same time, concrete policies, mechanisms and guiding solutions with respect to this will be developed.
2. Directions for Development Cooperation and Alignment in the Development Triangle
The primary priority of the cooperation among the three countries will be given to the development of the transport networks that link the localities in the Development Triangle together, those that connect the Triangle to other areas in each of the three countries, and the networks that lead to other regions and areas.
Joint efforts of the three countries will be made in their establishment of market-oriented concentrated cash crop production and agricultural and forestry material areas in combination with strong development of the processing industry.
The three countries will join their efforts and cooperate in hydropower development. The Vietnamese side can assist the Cambodian and Laotian localities in the Development Triangle to prepare the technical design for and build small- and medium-scale hydropower projects.
A “socio-economic belt” will be established along the border area of the three countries; border gate economic zones and tourism lines and locations will be developed; population areas (especially border urban areas) will be jointly established by the three countries and security; and order and security will be maintained in the entire Development Triangle.
The three countries will coordinate closely in their development of mechanisms for their collaboration and mutual assistance, and in their formulation and promulgation of preferential mechanisms and policies to be adopted by each country with an aim to achieving simultaneous development in the Development Triangle. Special development priority should be given to poor areas, efforts should be concentrated on poverty reduction, and favourable conditions be created to facilitate equal development among the involved provinces and enable them to catch up with other areas/regions as a principle in developing and promulgating preferential policies and mechanisms to push up development of the Triangle’s provinces and development cooperation among them by the three countries;
3. Forms of cooperation
To speed up the socio-economic development of the Development Triangle in the border area of the three countries, the forms of cooperation among them need to be diversified. Various forms of cooperation should be identified based on the scope and nature of the cooperative programmes and projects, the issues they address, and the financial position of each country.
- Tripartite cooperation will be applied to programmes and projects have direct impacts on or that are of the interest of the three countries, such as cooperation in environmental protection, tourism development, hydropower development;
- Bilateral cooperation will be applied to programmes and projects that have direct impacts on or that are of the interest of any two countries, such as development of transport lines connecting two countries, cooperation in education and training development, or in establishment of border checkpoint economic zones;
- Cooperation between central line agencies;
- Cooperation between localities;
- Cooperation between enterprises/businesses.
3.2-Cooperation in calling for foreign direct investment (FDI) in a number of needed areas
A favourable climate will be created for private companies, small- and medium-sized enterprises in particular. The finance sector will facilitate cross-border trade and investment, and gradually establish a reliable payment system among banks in the Development Triangle. Since the private sector is the main driving force for the development of the Development Triangle, measures to raise the competitiveness of this sector should be identified and taken. Favourable conditions should be created for enterprises to take part in the infrastructure development projects for the Development Triangle.
3.3- Cooperation in calling for official development assistance (ODA) to push up the developmentof the Development Triangle
- The establishment of a development triangle in the Cambodia – Vietnam – Laos border area requires synchronous efforts by all the three countries in mobilising resources. The Governments of the three countries must ensure that factors of national nature in vanguard projects will be given priority from their respective public investment programmes, whether they are funded by domestic or ODA resources. The Governments of the three countries must also provide on a timely basis counterpart funds to finance investment support and technical assistance activities in accordance with their commitment in order to realise the objectives and priority projects of the Development Triangle Programme.
- Apart from attracting greater involvement of the Governments into the management and coordination mechanisms for establishing the Development Triangle, wider involvement of other participants who can contribute to this undertaking – including the civil society, NGOs, the private sector, scientists and donor community – will be needed.
4.Some Proposed Priority Cooperation Projects in the Development Triangle for the Period from Now to 2010
The development directions for the Development Triangle are concretised into the following priority cooperation projects:
4.1- Infrastructure sector
4.1.1-Cooperation in networkdevelopment
While financial resources are limited, priority will be given first of all to the development of axis lines linking the provinces in the Development Triangle together and connecting this area to the capital of each country and to the Vietnamese sea ports so as to facilitate the all-faceted development cooperation among its provinces. Subsequently, fish bone roads connecting the axis lines to the economic centres and the areas in the Triangle where development potentials are available, but roads are not in place will be developed.
(a)- Transport lines connecting the Development Triangle to other regions/areas, to the Vietnamese sea ports and to the capital of each country.
For these transport lines, the Governments of the three countries should give priority to the development of these lines, using their own financial resources or calling for foreign investment. These transport lines include:
- National Road No. 7(in Cambodia) connecting the Development Triangle and Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia
- National Road No. 13(in Laos) connecting the Development Triangle to Vientiane, the capital of Laos
- Ho Chi Minh route and National Road No. 1A(in Vietnam) linking the Development Triangle and Hanoi capital and Ho Chi Minh City of Vietnam and National Roads No. 49, 14B, 14E, 24, 19 and 25 that connect the Triangle to the Vietnamese sea ports.
(b)- Axis lines connecting the provinces in the Development Triangle together
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1
Road No. 78Upgrading (Cambodia)
Construction of theBan Lung – Cambodia – Vietnam border section which is 70 km long
2005-2006
Connecting Rattanakiri – Gia Lai to Quy Nhon port
Bilateral cooperation between Cambodia and Vietnam
Conduct of survey and construction of the O Pong Maon –Ban Lung section – 128 Km long
After 2005
Linking Stung Treng and Rattanakiri
Bilateral cooperation or ADB/WB or Japan’s financial assistance
2
National Road No. 18B Upgrading (Laos)
Upgrading of the road from Attapeu to Laos - Vietnam border
Transport clearance by 2005
Linking Attapeu and Kon Tum (NR No 18B – NR No. 40)
Bilateral cooperation between Laos and Vietnam
(c)- Transport lines linking the provinces in the Development Triangle together and connecting them to the axis lines
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1
Road No. 18A Upgrading (Laos) (to be completed soon)
Construction of the section from Attapeu toPhia Phay (in Cham Pa Sak province)
2010-2015
Linking Attapeu and Cham Pa Sak and the NR No. 13 (Laos) together
ODA from Japan or ADB
2
Roads No. 78A (Cambodia) Construction
Construction of the road fromBan Lung to the Cambodia – Laos border
2006-2010
LinkingBan Lung and the Cambodia – Laos border and the road No. 1J of Laos together
ODA from Japan or ADB or WB
3
Road No. 1J (Laos)Construction
Construction of the section from Muong May to the Laos – Cambodia border
2006-2010
Linking Muong May and the Laos – Cambodia border and road No. 78A of Cambodia
ODA from ADB or Japan
(d)- Cooperation in developing other means of transport
(i)- Airway transport:
Planning for airway transport is a big policy of each country. The proposed cooperation projects are based on available programmes of each country and a number of available categories.
- An airport in Rattanakiri province (Cambodia): There are two proposed locations for the Rattanakiri airport: one in " Ka Lay" on the National Road No. 78A which is 14 km from the North of Ban Lung provincial town, and the other is in "O Chong" which is 14 km from the South of Ban Lung provincial town. The Survey on Topography and Geography has been conducted by the Secretariat of Civil Aviation only for Ka Lay location in June 2002. Thorough surveys regarding the development of this airport have not been conducted, and financial resources have not been available yet. Therefore, it is possible that three countries can cooperate in implementing a programme to conduct surveys and formulate a project on the airport. Currently, under the GMS-tourism projects, ADB has provided the assistance to rehabilitate Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Airports. They will start soon, later this year and expect to end in 2006.
- An Airport in Attapeu province (Laos): Due to the financial constraint the development of airport in Attapeu would be considered at the later stage.
- The Plei Ku airport (Vietnam): A project to increase the length of the airport’s runway (made of concrete) by 2,400 meters (36 meter wide) to enable the airport to serve 55,000-60,000 passengers per annum.
- The Buon Me Thuot airport (Vietnam): This airport will be reformed and upgraded to be able to receive big planes like Boeing, A 320…
(ii)- Waterway transport
Waterway transport will be developed on the four major rivers, namely Me Kong, Se Kong, Se San and Sre Pork rivers. At present, no information about the exploitation of these rivers for waterway transport is available. In the master plan for development cooperation in the Development Triangle, the timing for specific categories can be identified as follows:
From 2005-2008: Cooperation in conducting surveys on flows and lines, and proposing wharves.
From 2006 to 2010: Cooperation in planning for project categories, barge flotillas, tugboats, loading and unloading equipment in wharves, etc.
4.1.2- Post and Telecommunications Development
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1
Establishment of a post network linking the provinces in the Triangle together
Establishment of post departments, especially in the border gate areas and establishment of lines for postal mails delivery
2005-2010
Linking the delivery of postal mails among the provinces in the Triangle together and connecting their centres to the border gate areas
Bilateral cooperation between Laos and Vietnam and between Cambodia and Vietnam
2
Development of a telecommunication network connecting the provinces in the Triangle
Establishment of transmission lines and switchboards in the provinces, especially in the border gate areas
2005-2010
Establishment of a uniform telephone network linking the provinces together and connecting them to the outside areas
Bilateral cooperation between Laos and Vietnam and between Cambodia and Vietnam
4.1.3 - Water Use
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1
Preparation of a Feasibility Study for the Construction of Spill-Over Dams and Reservoirs
Conduct of surveys for construction site identification and a pre-feasibility study for the construction of spill-over dams and reservoirs in the provinces in the Triangle
2005-2006
Supply of water to the provinces in the Triangle for agricultural production and livelihood purposes
Bilateral cooperation between Laos and Vietnam and between Cambodia and Vietnam
4.1.4- Power and Power Transmission Network Development
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1
During the period 2006 - 2010
Bilateral cooperation between Cambodia and Vietnam
- Studies of Se San River Basin
- Propose development studies on technical and economic aspects in the interconnection 115KV from Lao PDR to Stung Treng
Cambodiaand Laos will jointly request to India for funding
- In Laos,the Sekaman 3 hydropower plant will be built.
In the three provinces of Vietnam, eight hydropower projects with a combined capacity of 1,433 MW will be built: Se San 3, Se San 3A, Se Por 3, Preikrong, An Khe Kanak, Buon Kuop, Se San 4, and Thuong Kon Tum
During the period 2010 to 2020
Bilateral or multilateral cooperation, or loans
Constructions of Prek Liang 1 and 2, and Lower Se San 2 hydropower plants
- In the provinces of Laos, the Se Kong 4, Se Kong 5 and Nam Kong 1 hydropower plants will be developed.
- In the provinces of Vietnam, two hydropower projects – Yaun Thuong and Duc Xuyen – will be developed.
2
Construction of small- and medium-sized hydropower plants
Conduct of surveys and studies on and construction of small- and medium-sized hydropower plants in theprovinces of the Development Triangle
2006-2010
Supply of power to the areas in the seven provinces where power is in shortage
Calling for ODA and corporation from Vietnam General Cooperation for Electricity
3
Construction of the network of power transmission lines that link power supply networks of the three countries together
Conduct of surveys and studies on and construction of power transmission network and transformer stations
2006-2020
Linking the power transmission networks of the three countries along the road No. 18 of Laos, the road No. 78 of Cambodia and the roads No. 19 and 40 of Vietnam together
4.2- Development Cooperation Projects in Industry Sector
From 2005 onwards, when a number of important transport projects have been completed (like Road No. 18B connecting Kon Tum province of Vietnam to Attapeu province of Laos, Road No. 78 linking Gia Lai province of Vietnam and Rattanakiri of Cambodia together...) and other road lines have been expanded or upgraded… more opportunities for industrial development will be available and at the same time, there will be more opportunities for development cooperation in the industry sector.
Cooperation in industrial development during the period from now to the year will focus on the following directions:
·Preparing necessary conditions for industrial development in the next period;
·Enhancing cooperation and exchange in industrial development research;
·Cooperating in conducting basic surveys, assessing natural resources, market, and formulating specific industrial development projects;
·Making investment to develop a number of small-scale processing establishments, such as wood processing, agro-processing establishments;
·Making investment to develop a number of building material exploiting and producing establishments.
After 2005, specific directions for industrial development cooperation will be as follows:
·Further enhancing the conduct of research, surveys, and formulation of industrial projects;
·Cooperating in seeking markets with an aim to developing a number of agro-forestry processing establishments like rubber, coffee and cashew nut by taking advantage of market preferences for Cambodian and Laotian market-oriented products and Vietnamese technology, technique and labour. A number of agro-forestry processing enterprises can be located in border gate economic zones.
·Creating favourable conditions and opportunities for investing in some other manufacturing sectors...
·Establishing and making investment in a number of natural resources and minerals exploiting industries when conditions permit...
4.3- Agriculture and Forestry Sector
Agro-forestry production serves as the foundation of the economy, plays an important role in stabilising the population, and has direct impacts on the ecological environment. Therefore, in both immediate and long-term futures, cooperative relations in the field of agriculture and forestry within the border area of the three countries are extremely significant to their respective socio-economic development, order and security, and social safety. Major aspects of cooperation among the three countries in the coming time in this regard include:
- Join efforts to resolve the issues that are not only of the interest of the sub-national unit of each country, but also of the common interest of the entire Triangle, such as food security, permanent cultivation and fixed settlement, and protection of ecological environment.
- Mutually assist one another in pushing up the transformation of agro-forestry composition, infrastructure development and services to support production activities with an aim to developing a number of mainstay market-oriented products that are can be combined with processing industry, such as perennial cash crops (coffee, rubber, cashew, pepper...), cattle farming, and forestry and wildlife protection.
Attention should be given first of all to cooperation in some sectors for which pressing issues like food security, commodity production and marketing, forest fund protection and restoration... are emerging on the basis of proper exploitation of natural resources along the line of sustainable development protection of ecological environment in watershed areas, and upgrading of managerial and technical level of the contingent of technical and community staff.
4.3.1- Main Cooperative Programmes
(1)- Programme on cooperation in the conducts of basic surveys and researchon natural conditions, evaluation of land potential for agricultural development in service of planning for permanent cultivation and fixed settlement, and agricultural and forestry development:
·Conduct of surveys and review of the cultivated area of perennial cash crops to serve as a basis for improving and transforming the crop composition, raising land use efficiency, and development of common programmes, policies and mechanisms for the development of these crops for the three countries.
·Investigation and evaluation of water resources vµ development of the irrigation master plan (for Se Kong, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng provinces).
·Investigation and Evaluation of Forest Resources and Conduct of Forest Classification (within the Development Triangle Area)
·Land investigation and land map development, and evaluation of land adaptability to agricultural and forestry production at provincial level (for Sekong, Rattanakiri and Strung Treng provinces).
·Conduct of surveys and research on development of the meteor hydrological stations network (the provinces of Cambodia and Laos).
(2)- Programme on cooperation in ensuring food security,transfer of technology and techniques, especially addressing the issue of crop varieties, animal breeds, fishery breeds... to rapidly increase the output of local food and to improve the income of households so as to facilitate the exchange of and access to food (the provinces of Cambodia and Laos)
·Establishment of a number of demonstration models for production techniques for the people to learn as follows: rice intensive farming model, maize model, crop structural transformation model, cattle farming model, fish farming model, combined agricultural and forestry cultivation model... (the provinces of Cambodia and Laos).
·Cooperation and assistance in making investment in and developing some focal irrigation works (the provinces of Cambodia and Laos)
·Organisation of agricultural and forestry production in permanent cultivation and fixed settlement areas to stabilise the population (in Vietnam: border areas and ethnic minority areas, in Laos: Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong provinces and the areas along the Road No. 18B).
(3)- Programme on export cash crop development, production technology and technique transfer, especially addressing the issue of high yield and high quality cash crop varieties so as to meet the market’s demand for increasingly high quality products (the provinces of Cambodia and Laos).
·Support for improvement of cash crop gardens, establishment of demonstration models for production techniques (the provinces of Cambodia and Laos).
·Support for and enhancement of the development of a number of key cash crops like rubber, coffee, cashew nut, pepper, etc.
·Support for the development of processing industry, especially household economy (the provinces of Cambodia and Laos).
4.3.2- Selected Cooperative Projects
(1) - Project on “Investigation of the Possibility to Expand the Area of Agricultural Land and Directions for its Exploitation and Use in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong provinces.
(2) - Project on Agricultural and Forestry Development and Population Development along the Road No. 18B in Attapeu Province.
(3) - Project on Food Production Support for Focal Districts ofAttapeu, Saravan and Se KongProvinces.
(4) -Project on Development of an Irrigation Master Plan for the Entire Se Kong Province.
(5) -Project on Cattle Raising Development Support for Mountainous Districts.
(6) -Project on Building of Sepian – Attapeu Irrigation Work.
(7) -Project on Transformation of the Composition of Market-Oriented Crop and Product in Hilly Areas in Mountainous Districts of Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong Provinces.
(8) - Project on Strengthening of the Capacity for Crop Varieties Experimenting and Multiplication in Agricultural and Forestry Nurseries and Farms in Attapeu, Saravan and SeKongProvinces.
(9) - Project on Short-term Training for Agricultural and Forestry Technical Staff.
(10) - Project on Forestation and Forest Protection.
(11) - Project on Construction of Meteorological and Hydrographic Observation (Weather and Gauging) Stations in the Districts in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong Provinces where These are Insufficient.
(12) - Project on Investigation and Evaluation of Forest Reserve and Conduct of Forest Classification(Protected Forests, Forests for Special Use, and Production Forests) in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong provinces to serve as a basis for the formulation of a plan for forest resources protection and development and a plan for proper exploitation of forest for socio-economic development. The total area to be investigated is 1.2 million hectares. Estimated investment requirement is US$ 1.5 million.
(13) - Project on Building of Nam Pa Reservoir Irrigation Work in Attapeu province to ensure an watering capacity of 2,500 hectares, including about 800 hectares of the area to be prepared for permanent cultivation and fixed settlement in the Misay sub-region (in Sansay district). The estimated investment requirement for this project is US$ 17.5 million (based on the figures in the irrigation master plan prepared by the Vietnamese Institute for Irrigation Master Planning in 1998).
(14) - Project on the Construction of 2 - 3 Focal Irrigation Works in Se Kong province.
(15) -Project on Transformation of the Composition of Market-Oriented Crops and Products (short-term cash crops) in the Attapeu delta and in Thateng and La Mam districts of Se Kong province. Investment requirement is US$ 200 thousand.
(16) -Project on Vegetables and Fruits Development in Service of Urban Areas in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong provinces. Estimated investment requirement is US$ 150 thousand.
(17) -Project on Fishery Farming Development Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong provinces. Estimated investment requirement is US$ 200 thousand.
(18) -Project on Strengthening of the Animal and Plant Quarantine at Border Checkpoints of Attapeu and Kon Tum provinces. Estimated investment requirement is US$ 100 thousand.
(19) -Basic seed production technology development project in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong. Project’s objective: To develop the basic seed production technology including breeding and variety evaluation, breeders’ seed production for cereal crops and beans. Project cost: 50,000 USD. Project scope: Cambodia - Lao - Vietnam.
(20) -Farming Technology Dissemination in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong. Project’s objective: To provide farmers and extension workers with improved farming technology information through radio and TV programs. Project cost: 50,000 USD. Project scope: Cambodia - Lao - Vietnam.
(21) -Export Oriented Crop Promotion in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong. Project’s objective: To expand export oriented crop production including agro-processed products in border provinces. Project cost: 50,000 USD. Project scope: Cambodia - Lao - Vietnam.
(22) -Community Managed Irrigation sector Project 2 (CMISP-2) in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong. Project’s objective: To increase food security and income of farm families through supporting the development of community managed small-scale irrigation schemes; To improve watersheds by stabilizing shifting cultivation and promoting tree planting in the Northern part of the country; The project will be implemented through Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) process. Project cost: 80,000 USD. Project scope: Cambodia - Lao - Vietnam.
(23) -Village-led agriculture development initiative in remote rural area (VADIRRA)in Sekong, Saravan and Attapeu. Project’s objective: The project will be divided into the following six sub-projects covering 3 provinces; To promote market-oriented agriculture in remote rural areas through village initiatives; To increase living standards and reduce poverty in remote villages through agricultural development initiatives. Project cost: 200,000 USD. Project scope: Lao-Vietnam.
(24) -Stabilisation of shifting cultivation in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong. Rational: A study of the on-going and planned program, for stabilization of shifting cultivation and opium poppy elimination, indicate that the northern areas are receiving substantial attention from a range of projects and donor agency assistance. These programs have strong components for assisting the development of sustainable farming system and alternative income generating activities. However, in the southern provinces of Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong, there remain areas of shifting cultivation where there are no current or planned programs to assist communities stabilized farming activity following scheduled land allocation. Thus, this project is formulated to address the needs in these provinces. Project’s objective: To stabilize shifting cultivation in upland areas of Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong provinces by the year 2010 through the development of sustainable land-use systems and other income generating activities which are non-hazardous to the environment. Project cost: 10,000,000 USD. Project scope: Cambodia - Lao - Vietnam.
(25) -Animal health improvement in Attapeu, Saravan and Se Kong.Project’s objective: To promote health condition of livestock and decrease livestock diseases; To strengthen livestock services related to animal health.Project cost: 100,000 USD .Project scope: Lao-Vietnam.
(26) -Coffee cultivation technology research centre in Bolovens Plateau. Project’s objective: To develop modern technology for coffee cultivation to contribute to exports. Project cost: 500,000 USD. Project scope: Lao-Vietnam.
(27) -Project on Development of a Master Plan for the Specialised Perennial Cash Crop Cultivation Area in the Rattanakiri Plateau.
(28) -Project on the Development of an Irrigation Master Plan for Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces.
(29) -Project on Food Production Support for Focal Areas of Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng provinces.
(30) -Project on Cattle Farming Development Support for Mountainous Areas in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces.
(31) -Project on Upgrading and Repair of Some Small- and Medium-scaled Focal Irrigation Works in Rattanakiri Province.
(32) -Project on Support for Rubber Improvement and Development in the Rattanakiri Plateau.
(33) -Project on Support for Cashew Gardens Improvement andDevelopment of Cashew Processing Establishments in the Rattanakiri Plateau.
(34) -Project on Fishery Farming Support for Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces.
(35) -Project on Strengthening of the Capacity for Crop Varieties Experimentation and Multiplication in Agricultural and Forest Farms and Nurseries in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces.
(36) -Project on Short-term Training for Agricultural and Forestry Technical Staff in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces.
(37) -Project on Forestation and Forest Protection in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces.
(38) -Project on Development of a Master Plan for Agricultural and Rural Development for Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces.
(39) -Project on Construction of Meteorological and Hydrographical Observation (Weather and Gauging) Stations in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces.
(40) -Project on Investigation and Evaluation of Forest Reserve and Conduct of Forest Classification (Protected Forests, Forests for Special Use and Production Forests) in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces to serve as a basis for the formulation of a plan for forest resources protection and proper exploitation of forest for socio-economic development. The total area to be investigated is 1.5 million hectares. Estimated investment requirement is US$ 2 million.
(41) -Project on Land Investigation and Evaluation and Development of a Land Map for Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng provinces (on 1/200,000 scale). Estimated investment requirement is US$ 450 thousand.
(42) -Project on Repair and Upgrading of Irrigation Works in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng (to ensure a watering capacity of about 4,000 hectares). Estimated investment requirement is US$ 16 million.
(43) -Project on Investigation, Design and Construction of Some Irrigation Schemes in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng (after the master plan has been completed and approved).
(44) -Project on Agricultural Extension and Crop Shift that Aims to Avoid the Situation of Flooded and Waterlogged Crops (not feasible from now to 2005 in the absence of irrigation works) in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng provinces. Estimated investment requirement is US$ 600 thousand.
(45) -Project on Preservation and Proper Exploitation of Fishery Resources in Mondulkiri, Rattanakiri and Stung Treng Provinces. Estimated investment requirement is US$ 1 million.
4.3.3- Some Priority Cooperative Projects During the Initial Stage
Cooperation in agricultural production and agro-forestry processing will be pushed up. The provinces of Cambodia and Laos in the Development Triangle are characterised by great land potential and forest reserve, but limited labour force and low level of and little experience in development and expansion of cash crops and forestry processing.
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1.
Conduct of basic surveys on and establishment of specialised cultivated areas
Provision of support for basic surveys on and planning for specialised cash crop, food crop, fruit tree cultivated areas.
2005-2006
Potential areas in the provinces of Cambodia and Laos
Bilateral cooperation and cooperation between localities
2.
Increased provision of materials and exchange of processed products
Making investment on the basis of taking advantage of the strengths, potentialities and capacities of the existing processing, contract-based processing establishments...
2005-2010
The areas where large material areas and those where processing establishments are available.
Cooperation among the enterprises and the provinces of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam
3.
Provision of training and technology transfer to workers
Provision of labourers and experts; training; and guidance on and transfer of technology
2005-2006
Potential areas in the provinces of Cambodia and Laos
Bilateral cooperation and cooperation between localities
4.
Strengthening of cooperation in product marketing and distribution
Making investment on the basis of taking advantage of the strengths, potentialities and capacities of the existing processing, contract-based processing establishments... in the Development Triangle
2005-2006
The areas where large material areas and those where processing establishments are available.
Cooperation among the enterprises and the provinces of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam
5.
Strengthening of cooperation in the development of agro-forestry processing industry
Conducting exchange, investment cooperation and technology transfer in agro-forestry processing industry
2005-2006
Potential areas in the provinces of Cambodia and Laos
Cooperation among the enterprises and the provinces of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam
4.4 -Trade
“Special economic zones” (Border checkpoint zones, export processing zones etc.) shouldbe established in the provinces, along the borders, in the Development Triangle. Feasibility study on establishment of these zones will be conducted. Cooperation in promoting trade and investment and developing infrastructure of the border areas will be prioritized.
Cooperation in establishing information offices or/and single stop services for cross-border trade and business will be realised. For the benefits of information exchange between all three countries, the establishment of information office or/and single stop services at the border check points or at another specific location is primarily necessary. Information from all the three countries regarding customs procedures, taxes/duties, documentation requirements, immigration, investment, and other matters can be dispensed at the customs and immigration offices where traders and business people pass through.
Trade cooperation among the provinces in the Triangle area will be concurrently developed along with the development of the main transport axes that link the provinces of the three countries. Trade cooperation programmes and projects in the Triangle Area can be made in two phases as follows:
Cooperation Programmes in Trade Sector
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1
Development of a Mater Plan for the Network of Trading Service Establishments
Formulate the projects on development of border markets and border gate economic zones, petrol stations, trade centres, etc.
2005-2006
The provinces in the Development Triangle, especially the border areas and the areas along transport axis lines
Cambodia- Laos - Vietnam tri-partite cooperation and cooperation between local authorities and private sector
2
Establishment of Border Gate Economic Zones
Establishment ofspecial economic zones along the NR No. 40 and Road No. 18 of Laos-Viet Nam andalong theNR No. 19 and Road No. 78 of Cambodia and Viet Nam
2005-2010
Trade Ministries of the three countries; Kon Tum, Attapeu, Gia Lai and Rattanakiri provinces; and the concerned ministries and line agencies
Bilateral cooperation between Laos and Vietnam and between Cambodiaand Vietnam, and cooperation between localities
+ The period up to 2006
- Developing an economic corridor for trade and investment cooperation in the area. To review and establish a legal framework for promotion and facilitation of trade and investment activities in the area, including review of trade agreements for border areas, preferential regulations applied to border gate areas, import- export tax, and other related legislations;
- Cooperation in training of customs officers;
- To promote trade and business activities through the establishment of inter-agency inspection and provide warehousing and payment facilitation to the traders and farmers;
- Encouraging small border trading using the mode of barter trading;
- Vietnam might consider granting Special and Differential Tariff Treatment (AISP Like treatment) for some products of Cambodia and Lao PDR, produced in the Development Triangle Area;
- Establishing special economic zones and border markets; and
- Revising/amending the existing Agreement on Goods in Transit or formulating a new comprehensive Agreement, including the detailed specificity for the Development Triangle.
+The 2007-2010 Period
- Further improve the legal framework for the trade cooperation in the area (export – import tax and other kinds of tax; regulations on goods, services and people movement, conditions for preferential credit application).
- Cooperation in organising trade fairs
- Cooperation in building of a petrol centre
- Cooperation in construction of trade centres
- Cooperation in making investment in the trade system
- Cooperation in training of trade personnel
(5)- Tourism
From now to 2010 the tourism sector in the Development Triangle will be developed along the following lines:
(1) - Importance will be attached to making investment in the development of various forms of ecological tourism in close combination of that of forestry sector, natural resource exploitation industries like hydroelectric power. The exploitation of tourism potentials will be closely linked to the protection of natural landscapes and environment.
(2) - Investment will be made to develop cultural tourism locations in close combination with the restoration and development of cultural traditions of the local population groups. The Development Triangle possesses significant potential for establishing of tours to learn about old Khmer culture, and cultures of Laotian tribes and Central Highlands ethnic minority groups of Vietnam. The key factor in establishing a tour capitalising on these cultures is the linkage and cooperation among localities in the Development Triangle. Tourism operators in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam can arrange workshop or networking sessions for tourism operators and hotels along the channel to explore the range of cooperative measures for creating tourism packages and exchange information on the relics and services available in this channel. Cooperation between tour operators and the authorities will enable them to share the same clientele and disperse the benefits over a much broader area than their own country alone.
The establishment of such a tourism channel in the Development Triangle would stimulate the development of supporting industries such as restaurant, hotel, handicrafts and transport service among others, many of which are already available in the Triangle or could develop rapidly. These supporting industries would certainly require technical assistance, human resource development and a liberal business environment. In the coming years, necessary conditions should be created for accelerating tourism development towards the goal of “Three Countries, One Destination”.
(3) - Conditions will be prepared for the establishment of tourism lines that connect the Triangle to the outside areas and international tourism lines. Vietnamese sea and cultural tourism will be combined with the Laotian and Cambodian ecological and cultural tourism, etc.
(4) - Investment will be made in the development of service and recreational establishments and tourist residence locations in order to increase the income from tourism and ensure the efficiency of tourism business.
(5) - Efforts will be concentrated on the development of human resources for tourism activities.
(6) - Importance will be attached to other priority activities that serve both trade and tourism sectors.
Like economic development cooperation in general, tourism development cooperation in particular should be based on the principle that the interests of all parties involved and the security and sovereignty of each nation are ensured. The Development Triangle possesses potentials for tourism development cooperation. For tourism cooperation and development to be efficient, it is important that good preparations are made for the conditions for industrial development, especially in terms of technical infrastructure such as transport and communications and the various aspects of social infrastructure and human resources, etc. By 2005 when a number of important transport projects have been completed (e.g. road No. 19B linking Kon Tum province of Vietnam and Attapeu province of Laos, road No. 78 linking Gia Lai province of Vietnam and Rattanakiri province of Cambodia) and other road lines and airways have been made available, upgraded and so on, there will be more opportunities for industrial development and at the same time, opportunities for tourism development cooperation will also be made available.
Tourism development cooperation during the period from now to 2010 will focus on the following directions:
·Establishment of technical (specialised) working groupsresponsible for carrying out joint actions and coordinating tourism promotion activities of the Development Triangle at the national level (Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam).
·Formulation of a master plan for tourism development.
·Propagate, advertise and promote tourism development cooperation in the Triangle:The provinces should actively participate in tourism cooperation programmes, particularly joint marketing programmes with an aim to selling package tourism products that involve the tourism services of all the three countries, programmes for combined actions among national tourism authorities of the three countries.
·Provision of abundant and diverse tourism products:Development of very flexible tourism programmes whose components are changeable to suit the customer’s demands and facilitate tourists’ liberal travels in accordance with the world trend of respect for privacy.
·Cooperation in Training of Human Resources for Tourism Sector:The trainingof human resources under the three countries’ tourism development cooperation programme will cover local managers, staff who are involved in provision of tourism services and communities of populations living in tourism areas.
·Cooperation in landscape and environmental protection:Environmental management and protection should be an integral part of the process of tourism development and it will contribute to protecting and maintaining natural areas and ecological system and at the same time bring about benefits to the local communities.
·Cooperation in security and social safety:Along with tourism development, convenient and liberal exchanges and movements in the Triangle area will give rise to the security and social safety related problems like smuggling, theft and robbery, prostitution, drug use, and epidemic diseases that can be easily transmitted from one area to another.
·Cooperation in facilitation of the regional and international tourist flow into and within the Development Triangle.
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1
Development of a Mater Plan for Tourism Development in the Development Triangle
Development of a mater plan for the network of tourism locations and lines, tourist residence locations, recreational points, etc.
2005-2006
The area where historical and cultural relics, primitive forests, natural preserved areas, etc. are available.
Cambodia– Laos – Vietnam Tri-partite cooperation and cooperation between localities
2
Establishment of Pilot Trans-nation Tours
Establishment of pilot trans-nation tours to link tourism locations of the six provinces together
2005-2010
Provinces in the Development Triangle
Cambodia– Laos – Vietnam Tri-partite cooperation and cooperation between localities
3
Establishment of pilot community based tourism
Development of community based tourism
2006-2010
Provinces in Development Triangle
Cambodia– Laos – Vietnam Tri-partite cooperation and cooperation between localities
4.6- Education and Training Development Cooperation Projects for the Development Triangle
Given a higher level of education and training development of the Vietnamese provinces in the Triangle and the availability of physical facilities and experience in these provinces, it is proposed that following education and training development cooperation projects should be implemented in the Development Triangle:
(1)- Strengthening of Training Capacity and Improvement of Training Quality for Some Focal Training Establishments in the Central Highlands (to lay a firm foundation for the implementation of cooperation programmes): These establishments include Tay Nguyen (Central Highlands) University, Dak Lak and Gia Lai Teacher’s Training Colleges, a number of technical worker’s training centres of Coffee and Rubber General Corporations, etc.
(2)- Project on building of ethnic boarding schools to attract students from remote and isolated areas to go to school: These schools will provide a combined general education, professional orientation and vocational training for the youth from ethnic groups so that upon their completion of the education they can come back to their original locations as teachers or to get a job in order to raise their family’s income (In the immediate future, one school will be built in each of the provinces of Cambodia and Laos, and later on, the scope of the project will be expanded to the district level depending on actual needs. In addition, the capacity of existing ethnic boarding vocational school in Sekong province will be upgraded).
(3)- Project on building of schools for professional orientation, vocational training and training of vocational training teachers to provide vocational training to the youth and secondary school graduates who have no opportunities to pursue higher education to become skilled workers.
(4)- Project on primary and junior secondary school teacher’s training and improvement (in which the Cambodian and Laotian provinces send their teachers to the training schools in Vietnam for training).
(5)- Project on provincial and district staff and civil servants training and improvement.
(6)- Project on managerial staff training and improvement to provide training and improve the skills of the managerial staff who are responsible for the implementation and provision of guidance on the implementation of development programmes and projects in their area (first of all projects on poverty reduction, primary healthcare, illiteracy eradication and primary education universalisation, protection of natural resources and ecological environment...).
(7)- Project on exchange and dissemination of experience in implementing illiteracy eradication and primary education universalisation programmes.
(8)- Project on pre-university training.
(9)- Project on foreign language and vocational training for the youth in service of labour export (the Ministry of Labour of Laos PDR also has the intention to export labour with an aim to improving the skills of the labourers and helping them rapidly escaping from hunger and poverty).
(10) - Establishing junior and senior secondary school in 8 districts of Saravan Province and some in Attapeu and Sekong.
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1
Assistance in the Establishment of Technical and Physical Foundations for PrimaryEducationin the provinces of Cambodia and Laos
Provision of assistance in the construction of a number of schools, classes and supply of teaching and learning equipment and instruments
2005-2010
Assisting in the construction of technical and physical foundations for primary education in the disadvantaged areas of theprovinces of Cambodia and Laos
Bilateral cooperation and cooperation between localities
2
Strengthening of Training Capacity and Improvement of Training Quality for Some Focal Training Establishments in the Central Highlands
Improvement of training capacity and quality of the training establishments (including technical worker’s training schools) in the Central Highlands
2005-2006
Implementing training cooperation programmes for the Cambodian and Laotian provinces. Raising the quantity of trainees and quality of training of the training establishments in the Central Highlands provinces themselves
Vietnamprovides its assistance
3
Assistance in the Establishment of Semi-Boarding Schools in theProvinces of Cambodia and Laos and upgrading existing vocational boarding school in Sekong Province
Provision of assistance in the establishment of semi-boarding schools that combine education, professional orientation and vocational training
2005-2006
In the immediate future, one school will be established in each province of the provinces of Cambodia and Laos. Later on, the scope will be expanded to the district level depending on actual needs. In addition, the capacity of existing ethnic boarding vocational school in Sekong province will be upgraded
Bilateral cooperation between Laos and Vietnam and between Cambodiaand Vietnam
4
Assistance in the Establishment of Professional Orientation, Vocational Training and Vocational Teacher’s Training Centres in the Provinces of Cambodia and Laos
Provision of assistance in the establishment of professional orientation and vocational training centres
2005-2010
Provision of training to young people and students from the provinces of Cambodia and Laos
Bilateral cooperation between Laos and Vietnam; Cambodiaand Vietnam and cooperation between localities
4.7-Development Cooperation Projects in Health and Community Health Care Sector
Given the fact that the ten provinces in the Triangle share many similarities in terms of natural, economic and social conditions as well as the challenges facing them in terms of health and health care for the people, there is a need for combining efforts and actions of the three governments in this field with a view to successfully realising the directions for and solutions to improving the health status of the people in the Triangle. The objectives of the cooperation programmes include:
·Improvement of the physical strength of the people, first of all improvement of the health status of children and women;
·Effective prevention, control measures in timely manner on the disease outbreak. that occur and spread in the Development Triangle through following measures: establishment of information provision system that enables the provinces to keep one another informed on a timely basis of the occurrence of epidemic diseases; and mobilisation and concentration of medical forces and facilities to put out or prevent in time the hotbed of the disease outbreak in the area where they are found.
·Establishment of the network of health units that are capable of meeting the health care demands of each locality while being capable of taking part effectively in cooperative programmes and projects;
·Formation and expansion of a contingent of health workers who are capable of fulfilling the tasks set by each locality and undertaking coordination and cooperation activities among the provinces in the Development Triangle.
Priority Cooperation Projects for the Development Triangle
(1) -Project on building of the Tay Nguyen Medical Centre and some medical centres for the districts that have a border checkpoint to the Cambodian and Laotian provinces to serve as a precondition for the coordination and cooperation among the provinces in the Triangle
(2) -Project on upgrading and expansion of the Medical Department of the Tay Nguyen University, with both self-financing scheme and scholarship provided by Vietnam, to train medical doctors for the provinces of the other two countries
(3) -Project on integration and coordination of primary health care programmes of different provinces in the Triangle;
(4) -Project on strengthening of the physical facilities and capacity for health stations in border communes, first of all the communes in which border checkpoints are found;
(5) -Programme on malaria, dengue and parasite diseases prevention and control;
(6) -Programme on diarrhoea prevention and control;
(7) -Programme on SARS and avian flue prevention and control;
(8) -Reproductive health programme (protection of and care for women in pregnancy and child delivery, infant tetanus prevention and control...);
(9) -Programme on child malnutrition prevention and control;
(10) -Extended vaccination programme for children (This programme will first of all focus on vaccination for six major diseases and later on will extend to other diseases.);
(11) -Programme on coordinated efforts for HIV/AIDS prevention and control with a main focus on propaganda for HIV/AIDS prevention and control and information provision and exchange;
(12) -Rural safe water programme whose aim is to disseminate experience and provide equipment (hand pumps) and building materials for the construction of water tanks and leading pipes;
(13) -Project on building and improvement of the physical and technical facilities for provincial, district hospitals and for grass-root health units (province, district medical centre, inter-village/hamlet health stations);
(14) -“Village and hamlet Medical Cabinet” Project in which each village or hamlet is provided with one medical cabinet with basic medicine base;
(15) -Programme on grass-root health workers training and improvement (for community assistant doctors, paediatric/obstetric assistant doctors, midwives, and mobile health workers with an aim to ensure that basic health care services can reach remote and isolated villages where many ethnic minority people live; and managerial staff, planners and those involved in community-based health education and environmental sanitation);
(16) -Establishment of disease and epidemics check stations/points in the border area;
(17) -Project on of knowledge and experience sharing regarding traditional medicine and remedies;
(18) -Project on local pharmaceutical plant farming and exploitation.
4.8- Protection of Ecological Environment
The Vietnam – Laos – Cambodia Development Triangle is characterised by abundant and diversified natural resources, especially land and water resources and bio-diversity and high forest coverage rates compared to other provinces in their respective countries. The Triangle serves as the climate lung of their respective countries. This area is considered to be the roof of the Indochina house and therefore changes in the ecological environment of this area would have great impacts on the socio-economic development and ecological environment of not only the provinces in the Triangle, but also the broader downstream areas.
The objective of cooperation include: Protect and preserve the natural preserved areas and national parks; protect and enrich the existing area of forest; and protect water resources and fishery resources.
Environmental Impact Assessment Report of all development projects should be prepared in accordance with the Environment Impact Assessment Regulation of each country.
List of Cooperation Projects in Environmental Protection
No.
Project Title
Project Contents
Duration
Scope
Form of Cooperation
1
Conduct of Survey on and Assessment of Actual Status and the Need for Ecological Environment Protection
Conduct of survey on and assessment of the actual status and proposition of the needs for ecological environment protection; and development of specific projects
2005-2006
The provinces in the Development Triangle, especially watershed areas and areas frequently faced with floods and sweeping inundations
Cambodia– Laos – Vietnam tri-partite cooperation and cooperation between localities
2
Forestand Ecological Environment Protection
Strengthening of the capacity to conduct the work of forest protection, permanent cultivation and fixed settlement, advocacy/communication, community education, forestation, etc.
2005-2010
Provinces in the Development Triangle, especially watershed areas and areas frequently faced with floods and sweeping inundations
Cambodia– Laos – Vietnam tri-partite cooperation and cooperation between localities
5. Some priority projects to be considered in the immediate future
(1) - Cooperation project between Cambodia and Vietnam on the construction of Road No. 78 - the section from Oyadaov to Ban Lung, Rattarakiri which is 70 km long; and completion of the pre-feasibility study on the remaining 128km-long section from Ban Lung to O Pong Maon, Stung Treng province.
(2) - Cooperation project between Cambodia andLaos and Vietnam in training of Cambodian and Laotian human resources for tourism sector, 15 persons per country each year.
(3) - Cooperation project between Cambodia and Vietnam and between Laos and Vietnam in the field of trade: establishment of Cambodia - Vietnam and Laos - Vietnam border markets; trading of agricultural products, gasoline and other commodities in service of the livelihood of the people in the Development Triangle.
(4) - Cooperation project on construction and maintenance of small-scale hydropower works and power distribution in the Development Triangle. Cooperation on the projects on the study of the use of roads No. 15, 18, and 16 for poverty alleviation should be conducted;
(5) - Cooperation project between Cambodia andLaos and Vietnam in the field of agriculture: exchange of experience and technique and provision of high yield varieties and market information.
(6) - Cooperation project among Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia in the exchange of lessons and experience in the field of rural and microfinance for poverty alleviation.
(7) - Cooperation project on general education and human resource training through support to construction of physical facilities and provision of equipment for primary education; and provision of scholarships to Laotian and Cambodian students to study at Vietnamese training institutions.
(8) - Cooperation project on health examination and disease treatment for the people in Cambodian and Laotian provinces in the Development Triangle at the hospitals of the Vietnamese provinces in the Triangle, applying the same charge regime as applied to the Vietnamese people living in the Triangle.

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