Cambodia - Laos - Vietnam Development Triangle Area is a border junction area of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The scope of the Development Triangle Area is constituted by 13 provinces, including Ratanakiri, Stung Treng, Mondulkiri and Kratie in Eastern Cambodia; Attapu, Salavan, Sekong and Champasak in southern Laos; Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc provinces in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
The initiative to establish the Development Triangle Area was raised by Royal Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen at the first senior meeting of the three Prime Ministers of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam in Vientiane (1999).
In the 2ndsenior meeting in Ho Chi Minh City (2002), three Prime Minister has pledged to prioritize the implementation of cooperation in the Development Triangle Area regarding the fields of transportation, trade, electricity, tourism, human resource training and health. Groups of experts of the three countries began constituting socio-economic development master plan in the Development Triangle.
In the 3rdsenior meeting in Siem Reap (2004), the three Prime Ministers reaffirmed that the Cambodia - Laos - Vietnam Development Triangle Area is greatly important and three countries should work together to develop, especially the transport infrastructure.
At the 10thASEAN Summit in Vientiane (November, 2004), the three Prime Ministers approved the socio-economic development master plan for the Development Triangle Area and signed the Vientiane Declaration on the construction of the Development Triangle Area. Also at the ASEAN Summit, the three Prime Ministers participated in the 1stsenior meeting between the Development Triangle Area countries with Japan.
The 2ndSummit between the Development Triangle Area countrries with Japan was held in Kuala Lumpur in December, 2005. At the both meetings, Japanpledged to support the three countries in investing for Development Triangle Area and initially support 2 billion yen for a number of small projects on people's livelihood in the region. Recently, the countries of the Development Triangle Arrea have proposed that Japan fund 12 prioritized projects in the fields of transport, education, health care, with a total investment capital of nearly US$300 million.
At the 4thSummit of the Development Triangle Area countries held in Dalat (December, 2006), the three Prime Ministers pledged to strengthen and improve the efficiency of cooperation in Development Triangle Area through measures such as establishing a Joint Coordination Committee, creating favorable business environment for investors, strengthening cooperation in mobilizing external resources, especially from Japan.
At the 5thSummit of the Development Triangle Area countries held in Vientiane (November, 2008), the three Prime Ministers agreed on prioritized directions in development of the Development Triangle Area including simplifying administrative procedures in tranportation of people and vehicles within the Triangle Development Area; mobilizing the internal resources of each country and attracting investment into the Development Triangle Area; establishing special incentive policies for the Development Triangle Area.
The 6thSummit of Development Triangle Area countries was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (October, 2010). The three Prime Ministers exchanged and appreciated the results of cooperation achieved in the socio-economic construction and development of the 13 provinces in the Development Triangle Area. However, the three Prime Ministers also agreed that the Development Triangle Area is still at a low development level compared to other regions so that all three countries need give attention and priority to development policy for this area.
The 6thSummit also reviewed and approved the amendments and supplements of socio-economic development master plan to 2020 for the Development Triangle Area drafted primarily by the Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam in replacing to the former master plan developed in 2004. The three Prime Ministers signed a Joint Declaration of the Conference and witnessed the signing of the MoU adjustment of preferential policies for the Development Triangle Area between the Chairmans of the Joint Coordination Committee of the three countries.
Cooperation in specific fields
In terms of traffic,roads linking the provinces of the three countries in the Development Triangle Area are prioritized to develop as Highway 40 linking the Ho Chi Minh road and border gate Bo Y, Kon Tum Province. For Laos, the road 18B was completed in May, 2006 to connect with the Bo Y border gate economic zone of Vietnam. For Cambodia, Vietnam gave Cambodia a concessionary loan to construct road 78 from Banlung (Ratanakiri) to Ou Ya Dav, (Ratanakiri Province) with 70km of length, US$26 million of investment capital, started in January 2007 and finished in March 2010.
In terms of energy,Vietnam put Ialy hydroelectric power plant into operation (720MW) and has prepared to kick off the Buon Kuop plant (280MW) and the electric power transmission grid of 220 kV, 110kV. Laos licensed to Vietnamese enterprises to invest in building hydroelectric power plant Sekaman 3 (250 MW) being integrated into Lao National electric grid at the end of 2012, hydropower project Sekaman 1 has been kicked off, project Sekaman 4 was granted with investment license, projects Sekong 4, Sekong 5, Sepien-Senamnoi are in the stage of feasibility study.
In terms of trade and investment,Vietnam has been basically accomplished commercial, service infrastructure system of Bo Y border gate economic zones (Kon Tum) and is supporting Laos to set up joint checkpoint at Phu Cua border gate (in opposite of Bo Y border gate). The joint checkpoint at Le Thanh border gate economic zone (Gia Lai) is being deployed. Vietnam gives a non-refundable aid to Cambodia in constituting border market in Ou Ya Dav, Ratanakiri. Vietnamese businesses are actively investing in the provinces of Laos and Cambodia in the Development Triangle Area, building processing plants with the motto as "capital, technology and markets of Vietnam, labor and land potential of Laos and Cambodia. "
In terms of training, each year Vietnam received about 50 Lao staffs, students to study in the provinces of the Triangle Development Area and currently is investing in new construction of Laos and Cambodia student dormitories at the University of Highlands. In the short term, Vietnam assists Laos to build boarding-schools in Sekong and supports Cambodia to set up boarding school with 150 student scale in Ban Lung Ratanakiri by non-refundable aid (nearly US$1 million/school).
As for coordination mechanism,
In addition to the Summits, the three Prime Ministers agreed to establish the Joint Coordination Committee of Development Triangle Area, consisting of four sub-committees: Economic Sub-commitee, Social and Environmental Sub-commitee, Provincial Coordination Sub-committee, security and foreign affairs Sub-commitee. Each nation assigned a Minister as Co-chairman and members of the Coordination Committee composed of representatives of related Ministries, agencies and provinces in the Development Triangle Area. The Joint Coordination Committee annual meetings were held on a rotating basis. The first session of the Joint Coordination Committee was held in May, 2007 in Pleiku, Vietnam. The 2ndsession was held in Cambodia in February, 2008. The 3rdsession was held in November, 2008 in Laos. The 4thmeeting of Joint Coordination Committee was held in Dak Lak, Vietnam in December, 2009.
Development Triangle Area is a border area of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, including 13 border provinces having common border or having a connection with the common border between the three countries namely Mondulkiri, Ratanakiri, Stung Treng and Kratie (Cambodia); Attapeu, Salavan, Sekong and Champasak (Laos); Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Binh Phuoc (Vietnam). The total natural area is 143,948km2. The total population in 2011 was about 6,663 thousand people (population density of 46 people/km2), of which:
- The Central Highland provinces of Vietnam, including Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc have a natural area of 51,740 km2, accounting for 35.5% of natural area; the population in 2011 was 4,968 thousand people, capturing 75% of population of the area, the population density was 45 people/km2;
- The North-Eastern provinces of Cambodia including Mondulkiri, Ratanakiri, Stung Treng and Kratie have a natural area of about 47,246 km2, accounting for 32.4% of natural area and a total population of 471 thousand, making for 7.1% of total population of the area, population density of 10 people/km2; (1998)
- Southern provinces of Laos including Attapeu, Salavan, Champasak and Sekong with a natural area of about 46,746 km2, accounting for 32.2% of natural area; the population in 2011 of 1,110 thousand people, capturing 16.9% of total population of the area, population density of nearly 24 people/km2. (2004)